a project by Andrea Geyer. 2012 - ongoing

Beatrice Forbes-Robertson Hale  (1883–1967) was an English actress, lecturer, writer, and suffragist. Her family had held a distinguished place in English dramatic and literary life for three generations, and Hale was active as an actress from age seventeen. She was a suffragette in England before she moving to the United States in 1907. In New York she joined the New Theater Company, with whom she played several leading and secondary roles, and was a member of Heterodoxy, a feminist debate club based in the Greenwich Village. Hale retired from the stage but continued to lecture on women’s rights, dress reform, fashion, and theater until her later years. She wrote several books, including What Women Want: An Interpretation of the Feminist Movement (1914), What’s Wrong With Our Girls? (1923), and a novel, The Nest Builder (1923).

Ruth Hale  (1887–1934) was an American feminist activist and writer. She was born in Tennessee, and studied painting and sculpture at Drexel University in Philadelphia. Her career began in journalism, and she wrote for the New York Times, the Washington Post, and Vanity Fair among others. When issued a passport, Hale demanded she be named as Ruth Hale, rather than Mrs. Heywood Broun (her husband’s name), but the State Department would not meet her request. Hale refused to leave the country, and her interest shifted from journalism to women’s rights. She was president of the Lucy Stone League, an organization dedicated to the preservation of women’s maiden names. Hale was actively involved in the protests against the impending execution of Sacco and Vanzetti, two anarchists accused of murder. After their death, she campaigned against capital punishment.

Margaret Haley (1861–1939) was a district leader of the Chicago Teachers Federation, which she joined in 1897. Predominately populated by women, the group was unusual for its time. Haley, highly influenced by the teachings of John Dewey, advocated for improved education and increased salaries and pensions. She began teaching in Chicago, instructing sixth graders at one of the lowest income schools in the district. The conditions of the facility influenced the next sixteen years of her career. Watching the declining quality of the community, Haley realized that educators possessed a unique place in social hierarchy: they had the power to create a difference amongst the youth. She was the first female instructor to speak at the National Education Association with her authoritative 1904 speech, “Why Teachers Should Organize.” The Chicago Teachers Federation fought for what Haley called “the right for the teacher to call her soul her own,” and her first action won teachers a pay raise against the Chicago Board of Education. She took the CTF further by joining forces with the Chicago Federation of Labor. Their success earned them the nickname “Lady Labor Sluggers.” In 1916 the federation became Local 1 of the American Federation of Teachers, but the 1930s brought a decline in the league’s power and her leadership diminished.

Alice Halicka (1884–1975) was a painter born in Krakow, Poland, to a wealthy family. She studied painting in Munich and moved to Paris in 1912 to further her studies. There she met influential Cubist painters, and her paintings were exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants. In 1919 she began focusing on fabric and collage work. In 1924 Halicka had a solo show at the Galerie Druet, and she went on to exhibit at the Leicester Gallery in London and M. Harriman Gallery in New York, among others. Her work was a part of Katherine Dreier’s collection and appeared in the International Exhibition of Modern Art at the Brooklyn Museum in 1926. She spent World War II in France and continued to travel and exhibit her work throughout the 1950s and ’60s.

Edith Halpert (1900–1970) was an influential art dealer, promoting avant garde American artists beginning in 1926. Born in Russia, she moved to Harlem in New York City in 1906. Having formally studied business, Halpert entered the art world with an eye for marketing and advertising at the young age of 26. Her business successes led her to open the Downtown Gallery in Greenwich Village at 113 West 13th Street with her friend Berthe Kroll Goldsmith in November 1926. They exhibited influential artists such as Georgia O’Keeffe and Marguerite Zorach. Together with Goldsmith and Holger Cahill, she founded the American Folk Art Gallery in 1929 as the first folk art gallery. The affinity between Halpert’s artists and folk art was strong and sales of folk art sustained the Downtown Gallery through the Depression. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller was a consistent buyer. She received the Art in America award in 1959.

Emily V. Hammond (1874–1970) was an American art collector who primarily collected decorative arts.

Isabel Hampton-Robb (1860–1910) was an American nurse, theorist, author, and social leader. She was the American Nurses Association’s first president and the nursing profession’s prime organizer at the national level. After graduating from the Bellevue Hospital Training School for Nurses, Robb brought together a group of women who were superintendents of schools and founded the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses, which later became the National League of Nursing. In 1896 she organized the Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada; the group was renamed the American Nurses Association in 1911. Robb was also one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing. While serving as superintendent of nurses at the Illinois Training School at the University of Chicago and principal of the Training School for Nurses at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Robb was responsible for initiating many improvements in nursing education.

Denise Hare (1924–1997) was a photographer who began her career working as an analyst for the Army Intelligence in Washington. She was best known for her portrait photographs of prominent painters and sculptors of the mid-twentieth century.

Minna B. Harkavy (1887–1987) was an artist and political advocate known for her portraits of diverse subjects, ranging from Anarchist labor organizer Carlo Tresca to art collector Leo Stein. Her bronze sculpture American Miner’s Family is owned by the Museum of Modern Art and the large stone sculpture Two Men won first prize in a sculpture competition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1951. Harkavy helped to found the New York Society of Women Artists in 1920 and the American Artists’ Congress and Sculptors’ Guild in the 1930s. She was a frequent orator and spoke on behalf of the John Reed Club at a Communist anti-war conference in Amsterdam in 1932. Harkavy also served on the art committee of the American section of the Jewish cultural organization, the Yidisher Kultur Farband (YKUF). Her work was featured in group exhibitions at the Jewish Art Center, John Reed Club, and both the Whitney Studio Club and Whitney Museum. A retrospective of Harkavy’s work was mounted in 1956 at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence.

Grace Hartigan (1922–2008) was an American painter. She was born in New Jersey, and later attended the Newark College of Engineering during World War II. After college, she worked as a draftsman in an airplane factory. She began painting and soon garnered acclaim in New York, often in association with the New York School of Abstract Expressionists. But Hartigan did not appreciate such groupings: she felt her work distinguished itself from that of Pollock or de Kooning, and described it not as abstraction but as a “struggle with content.” Hartigan was the only woman artist to show in the Museum of Modern Art’s New American Painting exhibition series in the late 1950s. In the 1960s she moved to Baltimore, where she taught at the Maryland Institute College of Art. She was the Chair of the Hoffberger School of Painting at MICA until her death.

Miriam Coles Harris (1834–1925) was an American novelist. She was born to a family on Long Island whose lineage dated back to the American colonies in 1630. Hesitant of publicity, she published her first novel, Rutledge, anonymously, which led others to present themselves as the author and caused more controversy than ever intended. Published in 1860, Rutledge has been described as the first truly American-Gothic novel. During the later part of her life she spent much of her time traveling in Europe.

Dorothy (Dudley) Harvey (1884–1962) was born in Chicago. She and her sister Helen were part of the literary circle around Harriet Monroe. Harvey published poems and reviews in Poetry: A Magazine of Verse beginning in 1915. Her work also appeared in Dial, American Magazine of Art, and Nation. She published a biography of Theodore Dreiser in 1932, entitled Forgotten Frontiers: Dreiser and the Land of the Free. Harvey lived with her family in France for many years.

Olivia Stokes Hatch (1908–1983) was an American activist and volunteer who was involved in a number of organizations during her lifetime. She was born in New Haven, Connecticut and attended Bryn Mawr Collage from 1925 until 1930. Hatch was very active with the American Red Cross and American Conferences of Social Work. In the 1940s, Hatch worked with the League of Women Voters, City Club (Albany), Race Relations group and the Red Cross Speakers Bureau. In the 1950s she worked with the Norfolk League of Women Voters, and was active in church groups and the Parent-Teacher Association. In Lenox, Massachusetts, in the 1960s, she volunteered as a reader for Recording for the Blind, and helped to entertain young artists in conjunction with the Berkshire Music Center. She also traveled throughout the United States, Central, and South America, and in the far East. She is a co-author, with Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson, of Olivia’s African Diary: Cape Town to Cairo, 1932, which describes their trip throughout Africa and was published in 1980.

Louisine Havemeyer (1855–1929) was born in New York and immigrated to Europe with her family in the mid 1870s. While attending boarding school she met fellow artist Emily Sartain, who introduced her to Mary Cassatt. Havemeyer’s friendship with Cassatt grew to a working relationship and Cassatt became a close art advisor to Havemeyer. Once back in New York, Havemeyer amassed an impressive collection of significant Impressionist art. At age fifty two she became active in the suffragist movement and founded the National Woman’s Party in 1913 with Alice Paul. Her political and financial backing of the organization enabled it to rally and agitate for women’s right to vote, even causing a riot at one protest. A few pieces of her collection were auctioned off to support the cause but much of her collection was posthumously donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Edith Haworth (1878–1953) was an American painter. She studied fine art at a number of institutions in New York and Detroit, before finally settling in Detroit. Haworth exhibited her work frequently in both cities with great recognition. In 1903 she co-founded the Detroit Society of Women Painters and served as treasurer. She continued to paint and exhibit her work until her death.

Sophia Hayden (1868–1953) was the first female graduate of the four-year program in architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Born in Chile, she was raised by her grandparents in Boston. She began studying architecture in high school and was admitted to MIT in 1886. She graduated with honors in 1890. Hayden went on to design the Women’s Building for the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893 when she was just twenty-one years old. She won the competition to design the building, competing against thirteen other trained architects, but was awarded only $1,000 in comparison to $10,000 received by men competing for similar work in the exposition. After numerous changes were demanded to her plans for the building, she was fired from the project and did not work again as an architect. She spent the rest of her life working as an artist in Winthrop, Massachusetts.

Elizabeth Hayes was an assistant curator of decorative arts at the Brooklyn Museum. There she lectured on the museum’s collection to the New York State Association of Occupational Therapists at the Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. Miss Haynes was the only speaker without a medical degree at the Annual Convention.

Helen Hayes (1900–1993) was an American actress. She began her career at a young age, starring in a short film when she was ten. Hayes’s sound film debut was The Sin of Madelon Claudet, for which she won an Academy Award for Best Actress in 1931. Hayes subsequently acted in a number of successful films, though she admitted a preference for the stage. She returned to Broadway in 1935 and worked in the theater for almost twenty years. Her performances were widely acclaimed. Hayes finally returned to film in the early 1950s and her popularity increased further. Hayes retired from acting in 1971, when she was seventy-one. She was closely involved with a hospital in West Haverstraw, New York, and was instrumental in the development of the facility and its dedication to rehabilitation. The hospital was later remained in her honor. In 1982, Hayes founded the National Wildflower Research Center with Lady Bird Johnson, an organization devoted to the research(h and preservation of North American natural spaces.

Inez Haynes (1873–1970) was an American feminist and writer. She was born in Brazil, but was raised in Boston. Haynes attended Radcliffe College, a center for the moment’s suffragist currents. With Maud Wood Park she founded what would later become the National College Equal Suffrage League. She published her first novel, June Jeopardy, in 1908 and later became the fiction editor for the left-wing magazine the Masses. She lived in Europe during World War I, working as a war correspondent in England, France, and Italy. Haynes was a member of the Advisory Council of the National Woman’s Party and wrote the biography of the NEP in 1921. She also wrote Angels and Amazons: A Hundred Years of American Women in 1933. Her fiction was as radical as her politics; her novel Angel Island depicted a group of men marooned on an island inhabited by winged women.

Edith Shackleton Heald (unknown–1976) was a successful journalist and reviewer who lived and worked in Sussex, England. Her sister was also a journalist, and the two spent most of their lives living together or near each other. Working as a freelancer in the early 1900s, Heald placed several stories in the Manchester Sunday Chronicle. She became a special correspondent for the London Evening Standard and was the first female reporter in the House of Lords. Heald covered World War I, Irish independence, and the establishment of a republic by Sinn Fein in southern Ireland in 1919. The Evening Standard published her and poet Edward Shanks’s work as lead writers of the “Londoner’s Diary.” Her feminist opinion pieces were published in the Express, Sunday Express, and Daily Sketch. In addition to being a founding member of the PEN club, Heald was involved in the suffragist movement and advocated for women’s rights, including equal pay. Heald was romantically involved with W. B. Yeats and was his muse after they met in 1937. She later became involved with Gluck, a lesbian painter, with whom she and her sister lived in Sussex in the mid-1930x. The journalist was a great inspiration to both Yeats and Gluck, who described her as trustworthy, clever, and loyal.

Jane Heap (1883–1964) was a publisher and promoter of literary Modernism. She attended the Art Institute of Chicago and became an art teacher at the Lewis Institute after graduating. Heap met Margaret Anderson in 1916 and joined her as the co-editor of the Little Review. The two were lovers for a time; after their romantic relationship had ended, they continued to work together until the magazine closed in 1929. Contributing writers to the publication were some of the most influential modernist writers, including Amy Lowell, Emma Goldman, and Gertrude Stein. In 1920 the Little Review was charged with obscenity after printing a excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses. The 1921 trial fined Heap and Anderson and forced them to close the magazine. Heap relocated to Paris in 1925 and began an avant-garde study group that was joined by author Kathryn Hulme and journalist Solita Solano. She moved to London ten years later and remained there until the end of her life.

Sigrid Hedman was a Swedish artist and one of five members of De Fem, a spiritualist group that met during the 1890s. Artists Hilma Af Klint, Anna Cassel, Cornelia Cederberg, and Matilde N. were also members of the group. Also called the Friday Group, they began as an ordinary spiritualist group that received messages through a psychograph (an instrument for recording spirit writings) or a trance medium. They met in each other’s homes and studios. During the Friday Group’s séances spirit leaders presented themselves by name and promised to help the group’s members in their spiritual training; such leaders are common in spiritualist literature and life. Through its spirit leaders the group was inspired to draw automatically in pencil, a technique that was not unusual at that time. When the hand moved automatically, the conscious will did not direct the pattern that developed on the paper, and, in theory, the women became artistic tools for their spirit leaders. In a series of sketchbooks, religious scenes and religious were depicted in drawings made by the group collectively. Their drawing technique developed in such a way that abstract patterns—dependent on the free movement of the hand—became visible.

Paula Heimann (1899–1982) was a German psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who established the phenomenon of countertransference as an important tool of psychoanalytic treatment. After passing her state exams, Heimann trained to be a psychiatrist from 1924 to 1927 in Heidelberg. She then began her psychoanalytic training in Berlin and became a member of the International Society of Doctors Against War. After immigrating to London, Heimann worked as the secretary for Melanie Klein, a prominent Austrian-British psychoanalyst, and the two became close associates. Her article “On Counter-Transference” created a rift among Kleinian analysts by placing a different emphasis on countertransference and led Heimann to break with the group.

Dorte Helm (1898–1941) was a German artist and member of the Bauhaus.

Florence Henri  (1893–1982) was a photographer and artist. Born in the United States, she was raised in Europe at the turn of the century. After studying music in Rome and being introduced to the avant-garde movement, she enrolled in the Bauhaus in the late 1920s to study painting and photography. While at the Bauhaus, she became friends with Lucia Moholy who encouraged her to pursue photography more seriously. Henri soon abandoned painting and set up her own photography studio, using her technique of incorporating mirrors to take self-portraits as well as images of friends such as Petra Van Doesburg, Sonia Delaunay, and Margarete Schall. She exhibited her work internationally and was recognized as an icon of the avant-garde during that period. Henri began teaching photography in 1930; her notable students included Gisele Freund and Lisette Model. With the occupation of the Nazi party came a decline in photographic work that would have been considered degenerate art, and photographic materials were increasingly hard to find. Henri returned to abstract painting until her death in the 1980s.

Adele Herter (1869–1946) was an American painter. She was a close friend of Lillie Bliss, one of the founders of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and with Bliss, was among seven women to sign the charter incorporating the Women’s Cosmopolitan Club in New York.

Wilma Hervey (1894-1979) was a painter.

Eleanor (1864–1924) and Sarah Hewitt (1859–1930) were raised in the Victorian era in a prominent New York family. They grew up with an interest in philanthropy and design, valuing the decorative arts and use of materials in an increasingly industrial age. In 1897 the sisters opened a museum on the fourth floor of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York. It would eventually become the Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum. The Hewitt sisters created the museum to be open to the public, a marked contrast to the popular exclusivity of other arts institutions at the time. The eccentric sisters used their private collection and donations from wealthy patrons to build the museum into an institution that educates its visitors on the aesthetics, functions, and importance of design in their daily lives.

Mary Ashley Hewitt (1866–1946) was a founding member of the Women’s Cosmopolitan Club, a private social club in Manhattan. The only daughter of U.S. Congressman and governor of the Montana Territory James Ashley, she earned a degree from the University of Michigan before marrying E. R. Hewitt, She founded the Public Education Association, and was also the vice-president of the board of officers at New York’s University Settlement. The settlement house movement’s goal was to provide social services to immigrants and low-income families in urban areas with both rich and poor citizens living in closer proximity.

Mattie Edwards Hewitt (unknown–1956) was a freelance photographer, born in Saint Louis, Missouri. She studied art and learned photography techniques by working as a photographer’s assistant. Her practice focused on the homes of wealthy East Coast clients. While attending the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, in 1901, Hewitt met fellow photographer Francis Benjamin Johnson. They developed a personal and professional relationship, with Hewitt working as Johnson’s studio assistant and manager. In 1909 she moved with Johnson to New York City to further pursue architectural photography. They had a successful career together but ended their partnership in 1917. Hewitt maintained her client base and continued photographing domestic and commercial interiors as well as gardens. Her photographs regularly appeared in the New York Times and Herald Tribune and in magazines such as Architecture Magazine, House and Garden, and Town and Country.

Lorena Alice Hickok (1893–1968) was a journalist known for her close relationship with Eleanor Roosevelt. Born in East Troy, Wisconsin, her early life was characterized by instability. She left home at fourteen to work as a maid until her mother’s cousin became her guardian. Hickok enrolled in Lawrence College in 1912, and although she flunked out after a year, she was hired by the Battle Creek Evening News to cover train arrivals and departures and to write personal interest stories. She went on to great success as a reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune and the Associated Press. When in 1932 Hickok was assigned to cover Eleanor Roosevelt during her husband’s first presidential election, she and Roosevelt quickly became good friends. They developed a lifelong bond, and in 1933 Hickok left the Associated Press due to her inability to cover the Roosevelts objectively. Hickok continued to advise Roosevelt, recommending that she hold press conferences with only women reporters and editing her articles for publication. In 1940 Roosevelt invited Hickok to live at the White House and named her executive secretary of the Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee. Historians have debated the nature of the personal relationship between the two women, but throughout their exchange of over three thousand letters, they professed their love for each other and made clear that their relationship was indeed romantic. By 1954, Hickok’s health was declining, and she moved to Hyde Park in order to be close to Roosevelt. There they collaborated on Ladies of Courage, a portrait of women political leaders, and Hickok wrote several books, including The Story of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1956), The Story of Helen Keller (1958), The Story of Eleanor Roosevelt (1959), and six children’s biographies.

Amy Mali Hicks was an American feminist, writer, and organizer. She wrote books on art instruction and criticism. Hicks was a longtime administrator for Free Acres, an independent, collectivized community in New Jersey. She worked with the Women’s Political Union and was a member of the Heterodoxy Club, two radical organizations that challenged some of the more placid activisms of women’s movements and suffragists.

Lily Hildebrandt (1887–1974) was a German artist. She studied painting at a private school in Berlin before moving to Stuttgart in 1913. She made stained glass and painted murals; she also published an illustrated children’s book. After World War I, Hildebrandt worked as a journalist until, as a Jewish writer, she was refused work in 1943. She continued to paint and exhibit her work in Stuttgart until her death.

Barbara Hiles (1891–1984) was an artist who studied at the Slade School of Art along with Dora Carrington. She became an admirer and friend of many in the Bloomsbury group, including Virginia Woolf.

Elsie Hill (1883–1970) was an American feminist and suffragist. She was born in Norwalk, Connecticut, and graduated from Vassar College in 1906. Hill began teaching at a high school in Washington, D.C., where she became involved with the suffrage movement and befriended Alice Paul. Hill was a leading member in a number of organizations, but her work with the National Woman’s Party is most notable. In the course of her activism, she was often jailed. Like Lucy Stone, Hill kept her maiden name after her marriage, which made national news. She continued rallying for causes of equal rights even after the passage of the 19th Amendment.

Beatrice Hinkle (1874–1953) was an American writer and psychoanalyst. She was born in San Francisco and studied medicine at Cooper Medical College in Stanford. In 1905 she became the first woman physician to hold a public health position. Three years later, Hinkle moved to New York where she founded the country’s first therapeutic clinic. She continued to study, moving into the emergent field of psychoanalysis. Dissatisfied with the misogyny of Freud’s work, Hinkle began translating and contributing to Carl Jung’s theories. She revised Freud’s omissions of repressed feminine psychology, making the female psyche independent. In New York she became a member of the Heterodoxy Club, a feminist debate society based in Greenwich Village in the early 20th century, where she began writing and publishing articles on women’s rights. Margaret Hoard (1880–1944) was an American sculptor and painter. She was born in Iowa and studied at the Art Students League in New York. Hoard exhibited a sculpture at the 1913 Armory Show of 1913 and was a member of the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors.

Hannah Höch (1889–1978) was a German artist and member of Dada movement known for her collages and photomontages. She was born in Gotha, Germany, and studied glass design and graphic arts in Berlin. At the start of World War I, Höch returned home to work with the Red Cross. In 1919 she began work with the Dadaists in Berlin. The subjects of her collages and photomontages were often socially progressive: depictions of same-sex couples and critiques of racism and misogyny (within Dada and in Germany at large). At the outset of the Third Reich, Höch retired from the public in Berlin. She continued to produce photomontages, and her exhibitions continued after the war until her death.

Angelika Hoerle  (1899–1923) was a German painter and graphic artist born in Cologne. She formed a leftist offshoot of the Dada movement called “Stupid,” made up of fellow painters. She died of tuberculosis at age twenty-two. Her feminist and Marxist ideas, expressed through her art, led much of her work to be destroyed by the Nazis during World War II. A relative was able to hide some of her paintings, however, and they were rediscovered by Hoerle’s niece in 1967. These remaining works were exhibited at the Art Gallery of Ontario in 2009.

Margo Hoff (1910–2008) was born and raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma. After two years at the University of Tulsa, she moved to Chicago to study at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1933. Her early style as a figurative painter was greatly influenced by Mexican painters of 1930s. She traveled to Mexico numerous times with artist colleagues and developed a clean, linear style in painting and printmaking, especially woodblock prints. She received awards in the annual Chicago and V icinity Exhibitions in 1945, 1946, 1950, and 1953. A solo exhibition at the W ildenstein Galleries in Paris in 1955 brought her international recognition. She moved permanently to New York City in 1960, and her collage paintings attracted institutional and critical attention, giving her the opportunity to exhibit with Betty Parsons. Her work became increasingly abstract and more brightly colored after she moved to New York, and she worked prolifically into the 1970s and ’80s, using vibrant colors and geometric forms. As artist-in-residence she taught at numerous American universities as well as in China, Brazil, Lebanon, and Uganda.

Malvina Hoffman (1885–1966) was an American sculptor and author, well known for her life-size bronze sculptures. Stanley Field, director of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, commissioned Hoffman to create sculptures of people from diverse groups and cultures around the world; the resulting sculptures became a popular permanent exhibition at the museum entitled Hall of the Races of Mankind. It was featured at the Century of Progress International Exposition at the Chicago World’s Fair of 1933. The museum also published a Map of Mankind, featuring Hoffman’s sculptures. Hoffman was frequently commissioned to create portrait busts, and dancers were the subjects of some of the works that brought her earliest recognition. She continued to sculpt dancers throughout her career, some individuals repeatedly, such as Anna Pavlova. She was highly skilled in foundry techniques as well, often casting her own works and she published a definite work on historical and technical aspects of sculpture, Sculpture Inside and Out.

Bess Holcomb was a teacher, who moved to The Dalles, Oregon, with Marie Equi, a physician and suffragist. The two lived openly as lesbians in their early twenties. When after Holcomb’s employer refused to pay her what she was owed, Equi whipped him with a rawhide whip. She was arrested, but the local community lent her support and raised the funds Holcomb was owed, demonstrating strong support for feminism and women’s rights in the workplace.

Nora Holt (1890–1974) was an American singer, composer, and music critic, was born in Kansas. She graduated from Western University with a Bachelor’s degree in music and went on to attend the Chicago Musical College where she became the first African-American woman to earn a master’s degree in 1918. She was also known as a socialite and spent many years traveling Europe and Asia while performing. She composed over two hundred works of chamber and orchestral music, contributed music criticism to the Chicago Defender, and co-founded the National Association of Negro Musicians in 1919. She lived in Harlem for a number of years and became an important part of the Harlem Renaissance. During the 1930s Holt moved to Los Angeles to continue studying music while also teaching.

Kati Horna (1912–2000), born Katalin Deutsch, was a photojournalist and Surrealist photographer known for her unflinching photographs of the Spanish Civil War. She was born to a Jewish family in Budapest and lived in France, Germany, and Spain before becoming a Mexican citizen. Horna began her lifelong friendship with fellow photographer Robert Capa when they were teenagers. Both became part of left-wing movements and used photography to exercise their political interests as well as make a living. Horna enrolled in the most prestigious school of photography in Budapest and soon moved to Berlin, where she worked for Simon Guttmann’s agency, Dephot. When the Nazis came to power, Horna fled to Paris and was reunited with Capa. There she became interested in Surrealism, in particular the techniques of superimposition and staged shots, and began experimenting with the photographic medium. In 1936 she and Capa were asked by the Confédération Générale du Travail to document the Spanish Civil War; the resulting images became her most celebrated work. While Capa chased front-line battlefield images, Horna focused on the effects of war on ordinary people, especially women and children. She used the techniques she had learned from the Surrealists to instill her photographs with a sense of dread and unrest, and the starkly intimate images were published in many Spanish anarchist magazines.

Karen Horney (1885–1952) was a German psychoanalyst born near Hamburg. She began medical school in 1906 and graduated from the University of Berlin in 1913. She pursued psychoanalysis and was hired at the Institute for Psychoanalysis in Berlin in 1920. Horney immigrated with her daughters to the United States in 1926, taking up residence in Brooklyn and teaching at the New School. She went on to become the associate director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, the dean of the American Institute of Psychoanalysis, and the founder of the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. Horney established the organization in opposition to the orthodox views of the psychoanalytic community, but her deviations from Freudian psychoanalysis led her to resign from her post at the American Institute. She began teaching at New York Medical College and was a practicing psychoanalyst until her death.

Harriet Hosmer (1830–1908) is considered one of the most famous female sculptors of her time, and a pioneer of many new sculptural processes. She was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, and at an early age studied anatomy with her father. Actress Fanny Kemble encouraged her to pursue art further, and Hosmer began attending anatomical demonstrations at the Missouri Medical College. In 1952 she, her father, and friend Charlotte Cushman left for Rome. There she studied under Welsh sculptor John Gibson and became a part of what Henry James called a “strange sisterhood of American lady sculptors who at one time settled upon the seven hills in a white marmorean flock.” Hosmer is considered to have led the flock of artists, which included Anne Whitney, Emma Stebbins, Edmonia Lewis, and Vinnie Ream, and her figurative sculptures emphasized the humanity of ill-fated mythological heroines as a means of highlighting the secondary status of women. Hosmer maintained a twenty-five-year relationship with Lady Ashburton during her life. She invented new processes and machinery for converting limestone into marble and devised the now-common method of molding the rough shape of a sculpture in plaster and then coating it with wax to work on its finer details.

Edith Lucille Howard (1885–1960) was a painter, illustrator, and director of the Wilmington Academy of Art and the Delaware Art Center. A descendant of Henry Howard, one of the founders of Hartford, Connecticut, she was born in Bellow Falls, Vermont, and moved with her family to Wilmington, Delaware. Edith attended the Philadelphia School of Design for Women and subsequently won two postgraduate trips to Europe, thus beginning her lifetime love of travel. She maintained a studio in New York while teaching at Grand Central Art Galleries and School of Art, as well as at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women (which later became Moore College of Art). Howard spent her weekends in Wilmington, where she became an administrator and director of the Wilmington Academy of Art and the Delaware Art Center, which later merged to become the Delaware Art Museum. She was a member of the Philadelphia Ten, a group of progressive women artists who exhibited together, and is also affiliated with the American Watercolor Society and the National Association of Women Artists.

Marie Jenney Howe (1870–1934) was a feminist organizer and writer born in Syracuse, New York. In 1912 she founded the Heterodoxy Club, a debate group for intellectual and radically minded women, which met in Greenwich Village. The group included feminists Charlotte Perkins Gillman and Mary Heaton Vorse. They functioned as a consciousness-raising group and advocated for egalitarian romantic relationships as well as women’s rights to economic and sexual freedom. Howe was active in the National American Woman Suffrage Association, and later joined the National Woman’s Party.

Elizabeth Sherman Hoyt (1885–1954) was an American landscape gardener and an executive with the American Red Cross. Because formal architectural training was not available to women, Hoyt studied horticulture at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts. She studied and designed gardens until the onset of World War I, when she moved to Washington D.C., and worked at the Red Cross headquarters. Hoyt was sent to France to survey the working conditions of women in hospitals. Upon her return to the United States, she was named head of the newly created United States Women’s Bureau. After the war, Hoyt retired from the Red Cross as well as from landscape design. She worked for various charities for her final years.

Alice Hubbard (1861–1915) was a feminist, writer, and a figure in the Roycroft movement, a branch of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England. Hubbard worked as the manager of the Roycroft Inn and was the principal of Roycroft School for Boys. She began her career as a schoolteacher at the turn of the century and was later involved in the suffragist movement, marching in the first suffragist parade in Washington, D.C., in 1913. Her works include Justinian and Theodora (1906; with Elbert Hubbard), Woman’s Work (1908), Life Lessons (1909), and The Basis of Marriage (1910). Hubbard died in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania while on her way to Europe to interview Kaiser Wilhelm II during World War I.

Anna Hope Hudson (1869–1957), also known as Nan Hudson, was an American-born artist who lived and worked in France and England. She began her studies in Paris where she met Ethel Sands, who would become her life partner. Having inherited significant fortunes following their parents’ deaths, both women were of independent means, and they divided their time between France and England, where they entertained artists and writers. After seeing her work at the 1906 Salon d’Automne in Paris, Walter Sickert invited her to join the Fitzroy Street Group, which merged with the male-only Camden Town Group to form the London Group in 1913. Hudson’s work was exhibited in England at Leicester Galleries, the New English Art Club, and the Allied Artists Association. During World War I, Sands and Hudson established a hospital for soldiers near Dieppe, and during World War II, their respective homes were pillaged and bombed in the Blitz, destroying many of Hudson’s works. The few remaining works reside in public collections, with one at Tate in London.

Kathryn Hulme (1900–1981) was an American writer. She was born in San Francisco, and attended the University of California at Berkeley. Hulme moved to New York in 1922 to study journalism and work as a freelancer. Her first critical success was her 1938 memoir We Lived as Children. Her best-selling novel The Nun’s Story was made into a film in 1959. Hulme worked in a shipyard for the duration of World War II, and after the war she worked as the director of the Polish Displaced Persons camp in Wildflecken, Germany. Her written account of the experience won the Atlantic nonfiction prize in 1952. She continued writing semibiographical nonfiction to much acclaim. Hulme was also a member of a group of women called “The Rope,” including Jane Heap, Solita Solano, and Margaret Caroline Anderson, who studied with the mystic G. I. Gurdijeff.

Johanna Hummel was a metalworker and student at the Bauhaus in Weimar. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, women did not have access to many of the art academies in Germany until Walter Gropius opened the Staatliche Bauhaus in 1919. In his inaugural speech, Gropius announced that the program would enroll 84 female students and 79 male students, and emphasized the equality of the sexes. Soon after, however, Gropius feared the large number of women would harm the school’s reputation, and many women began to experience hostility from the men in the program. Johanna Hummel applied and was accepted to the metal workshop, and Gropius praised her technical ability. He forbade her from selling her products, however, knowing she could not afford to continue her studies without the income from the sales. Hummel did continue to thrive through the help of male patronage, but her experience has been used as an example of the kinds of discrimination at work in the male-dominated art world.

Fannie Hurst (1889–1968) was a novelist. Born in Ohio, she spent the first twenty years of her life in St. Louis. After graduating from Washington University in 1911, Hurst moved to New York to pursue writing, and her stories appeared in the Saturday Evening Post and Cosmopolitan. In 1920 Hurst started writing prolifically, publishing five novels by the end of the decade. Her novels depicted urban life, particularly that of working-class women. She was among the first to join the Lucy Stone League, an organization dedicated to preserving the right of a woman to maintain her maiden name. Hurst was also a member of the Urban League and the Heterodoxy Club, a feminist debate society based in Greenwich Village in the early 20th century. In 1958, she hosted a talk show called Showcase, which was notable for its open discussions of homosexuality.

Susan A. Hutchinson (unknown–1945) was the curator of prints and librarian at the Brooklyn Museum from 1899 to 1934. She received her degree from the Pratt Institute of Library Science and began working at the Blackstone Memorial Library in Branford, Connecticut. Hutchinson worked her way up to acting librarian, and in 1900 she joined the library at the Brooklyn Museum. Primarily interested in the museum’s print collection, she helped to found the Brooklyn Society of Etchers and installed a lithography press in the museum for artists to use for free. Hutchinson also mounted print exhibitions at the museum, and edited the American section of the publication Prints of the Year between 1930 and 1934. Upon her retirement, her collection of photographs, prints, and drawings were divided among the museum’s departments.

Anna Hyatt (1876–1973) was an American sculptor. She was born in Massachusetts and studied in Boston, before moving to New York to study at the Art Students League. Her sculpture Joan of Arc became the first public monument in New York City to be made by a woman. She was also the first woman artist to be elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters, in 1921. Her statues are permanently installed in numerous parks, museums, and cities throughout the country.

Mrs. Thomas Hunt was an artist who exhibited a painting in the 1913 Armory Show.

Zora Neale Hurston (1891–1960), an American writer and anthropologist, was born in Alabama. She began studying at Howard University in 1918 but left in 1924 when she was offered a scholarship to Barnard College, Columbia University, in New York. She studied anthropology along with fellow student Margaret Meade, and earned her B.A. at age thirty-six. During her time in New York she was involved with the group of Harlem Renaissance writers who founded the literary magazine Fire!!. She traveled extensively in the Caribbean and American South for her anthropological research, sponsored by Charlotte Osgood Mason as well as the Guggenheim Foundation. These trips often served as the basis for her folkloric writing and novels. Hurston published Their Eyes Were Watching God, her most renowned work, in 1937. Though her work had slid into obscurity by the time of her death, an article by Alice Walker revived interest in Hurston’s work in the 1970s.

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